Effervescent tablets are uncoated tablet preparations containing mixtures of medicinal agents with acid substances and carbonates or hydrogen carbonates, which react rapidly in the presence of water to release carbon dioxide. They are solid dosage forms which are intended to be dissolved or dispersed in a glass of water before administration.
Effervescent tablets have specific characteristics that allow rapid adsorption and dissolution of the intended drug. The availability of dosage forms based on effervescence technology gained much importance with the technology of Alka-Seltzer in the s. The widespread use of effervescent tablets has been achieved as a result of their convenience and also the ease in which they can be consumed.Disprin Tab -Acetylsalicylic Acid Effervescent tab- Use,sideeffect,Dose-
This article reviews the fundamentals of effervescent tablets, effervescence reaction, excipients used in effervescent tablets, production techniques, quality control tests as well as the advantages and disadvantages of effervescent tablets. Effervescence is the evolution of bubbles of gas carbon dioxide from a liquid as the result of a chemical reaction between acids and bases. The reaction proceeds spontaneously when the acid and carbonate components are mixed in water, even with a very small amount as a catalyzing agent.
Because water is one of the reaction products, it will accelerate the rate of reaction, leading to difficulty in stopping the reaction. A classic example is calcium carbonate, the most widely used form of calcium. In a normal tablet or powder, the calcium carbonate dissolves in the stomach acid and is carried into the digestive system for absorption.
As the calcium carbonate dissolves, however, it releases carbon dioxide, resulting in stomach gas. On the other hand, as people age, they have less acid in the stomach and thus a calcium carbonate tablet may pass through the stomach without dissolving. That, in turn, may lead to constipation.
However, if the calcium carbonate is taken in an effervescent formulation, the calcium dissolves in water and is readily available for the body to absorb without the risk of excessive gas in the stomach or of constipation.
The low pH in the stomach can cause active ingredients e. Effervescent ingredients, however, can buffer the water-active solution so that the stomach pH increases becomes less acidic and thus prevent the degradation or inactivation of the active ingredient.
This buffering effect via carbonation induces rapid emptying of the stomach usually within 20 minutes and the residence time of the drug in the stomach will thus be short. The result is maximum absorption of the active ingredient. Drugs requiring large dose can be formulated as effervescent tablets. A typical effervescent tablet 1 inch in diameter, weighing 5 grams in total weight can include more than 2, milligrams of water-soluble active ingredients in a single dose.Kane is a junior at Billings Senior High School.
He Enjoys snowboarding during the winter at Red Lodge Mountain Resort, and spends most of his other time skateboarding around Billings. Search this site. Introduction The Project Chemistry Topics. The Chemistry of a Baseball Base. The Chemistry of a Basketball.
The Chemistry of a Cantaloupe. The Chemistry of a Concussion. The Chemistry of a Fire Extinguisher. The Chemistry of a Football. The Chemistry of a Football Helmet.
The Chemistry of a Fusion Bomb. The Chemistry of a Glow Stick. The Chemistry of a Golf Ball. The Chemistry of a Latte. The Chemistry of a Paintball Gun. The Chemistry of a Piano. The Chemistry of a Ping Pong Ball. The Chemistry of a Putting Green. The Chemistry of a Runner's High. The Chemistry of a Soccer Ball.
The Chemistry of a Softball. The Chemistry of a Supernova. The Chemistry of a Tennis Ball. The Chemistry of a Tiger's Brain. The Chemistry of a Volleyball. The Chemistry of a Welding Rod. The Chemistry of a Wrestling Mat. The Chemistry of Acrylic Paint. The Chemistry of Acupuncture. The Chemistry of Aderall. The Chemistry of Adrenaline. The Chemistry of Advil.Which detail from Heart of Darkness shows the ineffectiveness of the colonizers.
All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Elements and Compounds. What is the chemical formula of effervescent tablet? Wiki User Please specify which effervescent tablet and resubmit your question.
Related Questions Asked in Antibiotics Which antibiotic drug usefull in effervescent tablet? Amoxicillin is useful in effervescent tablet form. Asked in Vitamins and Supplements What is the chemical formula of vitamin c tablet? The chemical formula for vitamin c is c6h Asked in Health Why is a effervescent tablet better? Asked in Inventions What is stability requirement for Effervescent tablets? The stability requirement, or binder, for effervescent tablets varies.
Enough binder must be added in order to make the tablet hard to the touch. Asked in Chemistry How does the temp of water effect the reaction time of an effervescent tablet? Increasing the temperature the speed of dissolution is greater. Asked in Chemistry What will happen when you drop an effervescent tablet to 56 degree water?
Carbon dioxide gas will be produced. There will be a slight temperature change. As I recall, the reaction is slightly endothermic.
If that is the case, depending on the chemical reaction, the water will get slightly cooler. Effervescence appear in a chemical reaction when a gas is released from the solution. Asked in Chemistry What name is given for a chemical reaction that gives off gas? Effervescent, I believe.
Asked in Medication and Drugs, Chemistry What happens when an alka- seltzer effervescent tablet is placed into cordial? The third most disgusting alcoholic beverage ever. Asked in Chemistry, Elements and Compounds What is a chemical change to an antacid tablet?Effervescent Tablet Formulation and Manufacture.
What you should know about effervescent forms before formulate and manufacture it? As per revised definition proposed to US FDA, Effervescent tablet is a tablet intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before administration. Effervescent tablets are uncoated tablets that generally contain acid substances and carbonates or bicarbonates and which react rapidly in the presence of water by releasing carbon dioxide.
They are intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before use. You will find the process of Effervescent Tablet Formulation and Manufacture here. Many studies have demonstrated that effervescent tablets and powders enhance absorption of a number of active ingredients, such as disulfiram and caffeine.
It is theorized that the carbon dioxide alters widens the intercellular space between cells, which leads to greater absorption of active ingredients both hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Read more about : Vitamin C Effervescent Tablet : Formula, Manufacturing and Consideration of Material and Method of Manufacture Selection There are several categories of active ingredients: Those that are difficult to digest or disruptive to the stomach, calcium carbonate for example.
In a normal tablet or powder, the calcium carbonate dissolves in the stomach acid and is carried into the digestive system for absorption. However, calcium carbonate releases carbon dioxide when it dissolves in the GI, which usually produces gas in the stomach.
As people age, they have less acid in the stomach, and thus a calcium carbonate tablet may pass through the stomach without dissolving. That, in turn, may lead to constipation. However, if the calcium carbonate is taken in an effervescent formulationthe calcium dissolves in water, is readily available for the body to absorb, and there is no risk of excessive gas in the stomach or of constipation.
The low pH in the stomach can cause active ingredients to become denatured, lose activity, or cause them to remain inactive, such as Amino acid and vitamins. Effervescent ingredients, however, can buffer the water-active solution so that the stomach pH increases and thus prevent the degradation or inactivation of the active ingredient.
This buffering effect induces the stomach to empty quickly, usually within 20 minutes into the small intestine. The result is maximum absorption of the active ingredient. A typical effervescent tablet 1 inch in diameter weighting 5 grams in total weight can include more than 2, milligrams of water soluble active ingredients in a single dose.
If the required dose is larger than that, the sachet powder form is a common means of delivery. Those that are susceptible to light, oxygen, or moisture. Typical effervescent formulations have less than 0. Effervescence Tablet Formulation Acid Reaction. Effervescence is the reaction in water of acids and bases producing carbon dioxide. Typical acids used in this reaction are citric, malic, tartaric, adipic, and fumaric. Citric acid is the most commonly used.
It taste like citrus. Malic acid used in effervescent formulas for a Smoother aftertaste, but the price of malic acid is higher than citric acid. Tartaric, adipic, and fumaric had low water solubilities and used sparingly.
Bases Reaction. Typical bases used in the effervescent reaction are sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, and potassium carbonate. Sodium bicarbonate is very common in effervescent formulas and produces a clear solution after tablet disintegration. When sodium levels are a concern, potassium bicarbonate is used. Both types of carbonates are used mainly as desiccants. Binders in effervescent tablets use to bring the tablet hardness to a point where handling is possible.Sildenafilsold under the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Common side effects include headachesheartburnand flushed skin. Sildenafil acts by blocking phosphodiesterase 5 PDE 5an enzyme that promotes breakdown of cGMPwhich regulates blood flow in the penis. Pfizer originally discovered the medication in while looking for a treatment for heart-related chest pain. The primary indication of sildenafil is treatment of erectile dysfunction inability to sustain a satisfactory erection to complete intercourse.
Its use is now one of the standard treatments for erectile dysfunction, including for men with diabetes mellitus.
Formulation, Manufacture and Evaluation of Effervescent Tablets
Tentative evidence suggests that sildenafil may help men who experience antidepressant -induced erectile dysfunction. While sildenafil improves some markers of disease in people with pulmonary arterial hypertensionit does not appear to affect the risk of death or serious side effects as of [update].
Sildenafil and other PDE5 inhibitors are used off-label to alleviate vasospasm and treat severe ischemia and ulcers in fingers and toes for people with secondary Raynaud's phenomenon ;   these drugs have moderate efficacy for reducing the frequency and duration of vasospastic episodes.
Sildenafil has been studied for high-altitude pulmonary edemabut its use is currently not recommended for that indication. In clinical trialsthe most common adverse effects of sildenafil use included headacheflushingindigestionnasal congestionand impaired vision, including photophobia and blurred vision.
In Julythe FDA found that sildenafil could lead to vision impairment in rare cases,  and a number of studies have linked sildenafil use with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Rare but serious adverse effects found through postmarketing surveillance include prolonged erectionssevere low blood pressuremyocardial infarction heart attackventricular arrhythmiasstrokeincreased intraocular pressureand sudden hearing loss.
Care should be exercised by people who are also taking protease inhibitors for the treatment of HIV infection. Protease inhibitors inhibit the metabolism of sildenafil, effectively multiplying the plasma levels of sildenafil, increasing the incidence and severity of side effects. Contraindications include:  : Sildenafil should not be used if sexual activity is inadvisable due to underlying cardiovascular risk factors .
Sildenafil's popularity with young adults has increased over the years. In one study, a mg dose was shown to cause no significant change in erectile quality, but did reduce the postejaculatory refractory time.
Unprescribed recreational use of sildenafil and other PDE5 inhibitors is noted as particularly high among users of illegal drugs. Agostino, Santiago A.
Plano, and Diego A. Golombek of Universidad Nacional de QuilmesArgentina, for their discovery that sildenafil helps treat jet lag recovery in hamsters.
Professional athletes have been documented using sildenafil, believing the opening of their blood vessels will enrich their muscles. In turn, they believe it will enhance their performances.
Acetildenafil and other synthetic structural analogs of sildenafil which are PDE5 inhibitors have been found as adulterants in a number of "herbal" aphrodisiac products sold over-the-counter. However, at least one court case has resulted in a product being taken off the market. The US FDA has banned numerous products claiming to be Eurycoma longifolia that, in fact, contain only analogs of sildenafil. Nitric oxide NO in the corpus cavernosum of the penis binds to guanylate cyclase receptors, which results in increased levels of cGMP, leading to smooth muscle relaxation vasodilation of the intimal cushions of the helicine arteries.
This smooth muscle relaxation leads to vasodilation and increased inflow of blood into the spongy tissue of the penis, causing an erection.Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration.
The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers.
Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. In panel test, both of combination flavors; orange - lemon and strawberry - raspberry had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness.
It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates. Effervescent tablets were designed to produce solutions that release carbon dioxide simultaneously. Usually, these tablets are prepared by compressing the active ingredients with mixture of sodium bicarbonate and organic acids such as citric and tartaric acid. Generally, these tablets are included drugs that are solved rapidly when entered to water and they are recommended as a clear and palatable solution.
Thus, it is faster and better to absorb. As a source of acid, citric acid is the most used acid. Also other acids such as tartaric, fumaric, adipic, malic acid and anhydrides and salts of acid can be used. Potassium and sodium carbonate, sodium and potassium bicarbonate, arginine carbonate are used as a sources of alkali.
Sodium bicarbonate is one of the most used carbonate because of high solubility, severe reaction and low cost. PEGand sodium benzoatesweeteners, flavorings and water-soluble colors are applied. Polyvinylpyrolidone PVP is an effective binder of effervescent tablets. It can be added as dry powder or in a wet form as an aqueous or hydroalcoholic solution. Mannitol, PEG and water in small amounts can be used as effective binder. In producing direct compression method, the mixtures of powder with excellent flowability, and without particles segregation are needed and particle size of all raw materials should be equal.
It is necessary to prepare granules, if particle size is small.Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride HCl tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms.
Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content.
Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations. Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F 5 and F 6 formulations of mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics. Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame were selected.
Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties. Oral dosage forms of drugs are the main popular routes in spite of some disadvantages such as slow absorption and delayed onset of action. On the other hand, liquid forms of drugs are not stable enough and slow release dosage forms have longer routes for changing throughout the gastrointestinal tract.
These two forms are thus limited in applications. Hence, effervescent tablets seem to be an appropriate alternative for oral dosage forms. Effervescent tablets are designed to be dissolved or dispersed in water before administration. Effervescent tablets are uncoated tablets that usually consist of acids and bicarbonates or carbonates. In addition, the drugs prescribed commonly in high doses may be used in the form of effervescent tablets. Moreover, since effervescent tablets are administrated in liquid form, they are easily swallowed so they are preferred over tablets or capsules with a difficult consumption for some patients.
On the other hand, one dose of effervescent tablet is often dissolved in ounces of water. Being previously dissolved in a buffer solution, effervescent products do not get in direct contact with the gastrointestinal tract.
They can thus be tolerated in stomach and intestine well due to reduced gastrointestinal irritation. Another advantage relating to effervescent tablet is that when they are taken by the patient, exactly the taken amount enters the stomach. In fact, the CO 2 produced in an effervescence reaction increases the penetration of active substances into the paracellular pathway and consequently their absorption.
Water soluble lubricants are used to prevent the adhesion of the tablet to the device and formation of insoluble scum on water surface. Sweeteners are also essential in these formulations.
Since sucrose is hygroscopic and it leads to an increase tablet bulk, therefore other sweeteners such as aspartame, maltitol and sucralose are frequently used.